Physical Schemas in Relational Data Sources | The Big Data - Business Intelligence by Sandeep Venu

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Physical Schemas in Relational Data Sources


There are four types of physical schemas (models):
  • Star Schemas. A star schema is a set of dimensional schemas (stars) that each have a single fact table with foreign key join relationships to several dimension tables. When you map a star to the business model, you first map the physical fact columns to one or more logical fact tables. Then, for each physical dimension table that joins to the physical fact table for that star, you map the physical dimension columns to the appropriate conformed logical dimension tables.

  • Snowflake Schemas. A snowflake schema is similar to a star schema, except that each dimension is made up of multiple tables joined together. Like star schemas, you first map the physical fact columns to one or more logical tables. Then, for each dimension, you map the snowflaked physical dimension tables to a single logical table. You can achieve this by either having multiple logical table sources, or by using a single logical table source with joins.

  • Normalized Schemas. Normalized schemas distribute data entities into multiple tables to minimize data storage redundancy and optimize data updates. Before mapping a normalized schema to the business model, you need to understand how the distributed structure can be understood in terms of facts and dimensions.


    After analyzing the structure, you pick a table that has fact columns and then map the physical fact columns to one or more logical fact tables. Then, for each dimension associated with that set of physical fact columns, you map the distributed physical tables containing dimensional columns to a single logical table. Like with snowflake schemas, you can achieve this by having multiple logical table sources, or by using a single logical table source with joins. Mapping normalized schemas is an iterative process because you first map a certain set of facts, then the associated dimensions, and then you move on to the next set of facts.


    Note that when a single physical table has both fact and dimension columns, you may need to create a physical alias table to handle the multiple roles played by that table.

  • Fully Denormalized Schemas. This type of dimensional schema combines the facts and dimensions as columns in one table (or flat file), and is mapped differently than other types of schemas. When you map a fully denormalized schema to the star-shaped business model, you map the physical fact columns from the single physical fact table to multiple logical fact tables in the business model. Then, you map the physical dimension columns to the appropriate conformed logical dimension tables.






    Reference :http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E14571_01/bi.1111/e10540/intro.htm#BIEMG101


    Thanks And Regards,
    Sandeep Venu
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